In August 2020, Nifurtimox (LAMPIT) received approval by the FDA for the treatment of Chagas disease (CD) in certain pediatric patients. CD, caused by a parasite known as Trypanosoma cruzi, is a vector-transmitted disease affecting animals and humans in the Americas.

Nifurtimox is a nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and potential antineoplastic activities, which is reduced by cytosol enzymes or flavin-containing microsomal enzymes to a highly reactive nitro anion free radical. It contains 1λ⁶-thiomorpholine-1,1-dione moiety in its backbone.

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